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Problem solving at a UK cement plant

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Problem solving at a UK cement plant

When a cement plant in the UK experienced operational problems with the drag chain system supplying biomass-derived fuel to its kiln, UK based John King Chains Ltd (John King) was able to help.

At the UK cement plant, the mechanical handling equipment that was experiencing operational problems comprised of a drag chain system used for the transfer of a biomass-derived fuel into the kiln, in which two strands of a forged fork link chain were made common with a steel flight. The drag chain system pulled the material a total of 80m along a horizontal section and then up an inclined section.
Since the commissioning of the plant in the recent past (within four years), the plant operator had experienced
operational issues with the drag chain system.

Plant visit

[styled_image image=”https://www.johnkingchains.com/wp-content/uploads/news001-problemcement-foto01.jpg” w=”200″ h=”0″ link=”” lightbox=”yes” alt=”The rising section of the old drag chain system installed at the UK cement plant” rel=”” align=”right” caption=”The rising section of the old drag chain system installed at the UK cement plant”]

A meeting with representatives of the cement plant operator was arranged to discuss the experiences of the existing poor chain system, establish the symptoms and generate initial theories and hypotheses. A site visit was then arranged to investigate the current system, physically examine drag chain components, gather information, identify the cause(s) of the operational problems and formulate solutions.

The problem

The chain system consisted of a doublestrand conveyor belt system with a drag bar attached between the two. The chain iself comprised of two strands of a forged link, a headed pin with collar and role pin retainer. Two strands had a rectangular welded attachment to which a flight bar was bolted rigidly against the attachment. The flight bars were spaced every third link, with two plain links in between.
Analysis by John King established that the forged links were from a low alloy case-hardening steel and that the pin was from a case-hardened mild steel. The attachments and scrapers were made from standard steel. The fixing bolts were high tensile with all-metal locking nuts.

The main problems that the cement plant operator described were:

  • Poor service life, which caused two chains to wear out within 18 months,
  • Intermittent component failure causing damage, downtime and loss of equipment availability,
  • Chains extending up to 1.4m in length,
  • Slat deformation and resultant damage,
  • Bolt failure and resultant damage.

The root of the problem

Based on the analysis carried out by John King and its past applicational experience, two principal problems were identified:

  • A combination of corrosion and abrasion was causing degradation of the case-hardened surface of the pin and resultant accelerated wear of the relatively soft core material.
  • The extension on chain pitch resulting from accelerated pin wear was found to be unequal between the two strands, causing a mismatch.
  • Considering that the two strands were made common with a fixed attachment, the resulting mismatch between the strands created a sheer condition causing slat twisting and bolt failure

[styled_image image=”https://www.johnkingchains.com/wp-content/uploads/news001-problemcement-foto02.jpg” w=”216″ h=”0″ link=”” lightbox=”no” alt=”Cutlery – A strange but not uncommon component of the biomass-derived fuel that the cement plant operator has to handle” rel=”” align=”right” caption=”Cutlery – A strange but not uncommon component of the biomass-derived fuel that the cement plant operator has to handle”]

Examination of the biomass derived fuel and information provided by the cement plant operator established that it was a mixture of shredded domestic waste primarily plastics and paper products. It was clear that the material was in the process of decomposition and was therefore corrosive. This was further aggrevated by the deteriorated condition of the inside of the casing of the conveyor. The material also contained contaminants such as glass particles, silica and metals, which caused abrasion of the chain components. It is known from past experience that where a combination of corrosion and abrasion exists, accelerated component wear is often experienced.

Upon further investigation, a representative of the cement plant operator said that the plant was having an issue with the quality, consistency and preparation
of its biomass-derived fuel. It was noted that similar systems in Germany had better success and that lessons may be learnt from these examples.

Data collection methods

The initial data collection methods involved using verniers and micrometers along with photographic proof on- and off-site.

A total of 10 pins were removed from the chain (five from each strand) and were subjected to dimensional analysis. Checks were also carried out on the pitch holes of the forged links. It was established that there was a limited degree of wear in this element of the chain assembly so attention was directed to the
chain pins.

[styled_image image=”https://www.johnkingchains.com/wp-content/uploads/news001-problemcement-foto03.jpg” w=”605″ h=”0″ link=”” lightbox=”no” alt=”Three images showing use of a micrometer in assessing pins from the old drag chain system” rel=”” align=”left” caption=”Three images showing use of a micrometer in assessing pins from the old drag chain system”]

The 10 pins were taken for dimensional analysis to establish the extent of the wear. Dimensional checks were taken and at various points using verniers and micrometers. The results are shown in Table 1 based on the two individual strands of chain. There was a total mismatch of 139.32mm between the
two sides.

14/07/2021
Item CodeItem NameStock QuantityStock Unit
HP110/1016/PBS 4116 PART 4 HOLLOW PIN PLAIN CHAIN400.000Feet
HP27/0508/PBS 4116 PART 4 HOLLOW PIN PLAIN CHAIN20.000Feet
HP27/0762/PBS 4116 PART 4 HOLLOW PIN PLAIN CHAIN1550.000Feet
HP27/0762/SS3 INCH BS 4116 PART 4 HOLLOW PIN CHAIN STAINLESS STEEL 3041730.000Feet
HP27/0762/ZNBS 4116 PART 4 HOLLOW PIN CHAIN ZINC PLATED180.000Feet
HP27/1524/PBS 4116 PART 4 HOLLOW PIN CHAIN6453.000Feet
HP55/0762/PBS 4116 PART 4 HOLLOW PIN PLAIN CHAIN500.000Feet
HP55/1016/PBS 4116 PART 4 HOLLOW PIN PLAIN CHAIN1380.000Feet
HP55/1524/PBS 4116 PART 4 HOLLOW PIN PLAIN CHAIN644.000Feet
HP27/1016/P/9.5BS 4116 PART 4 HOLLOW PIN CHAIN (9.5HP)310.000Feet
HP27/1524/P/9.5BS HOLLOW PIN 9.5 PLAIN CHAIN310.000Feet
SP135/1016/P4.0 P SOLID PIN CHAIN920.000Feet
SP135/1524/P6.0 P SOLID PIN PLAIN CHAIN290.000Feet
SP400/1524/A2X1/D78416" PITCH BRITISH STANARD SAMSON FEEDER CHAIN WITH A235.000Feet
SP43/0508/P2.0 P SOLID PIN PLAIN CHAIN250.000Feet
SP43/0762/P3.0 P SOLID PIN PLAIN CHAIN510.000Feet
SP43/0762/SS3.0 P SOLID PIN CHAIN STAINLESS STEEL140.000Feet
SP43/0762/DLSP43 3" PITCH DEEP LINK CHAIN1030.000Feet
SP43/0762/K3X13" 7500iB WITH INTEGRAL K3 ATTACHMENT EVERY LINK ONE SIDE200.000Feet
SP43/1016/A3X14" PITCH 7,500Ib UTS SOLID PIN CONVEYOR CHAIN WITH 31.75 DIA990.000Feet
SP43/1016/DL4116 4.0 P DEEP LINK CHAIN630.000Feet
SP43/1016/P4118 4.0 PITCH PLAIN CHAIN ONLY1357.000Feet
SP43/1016/SSBS 4116 4.0 P PLAIN CHAIN ONLY STAINLESS STEEL ANSI 30410.000Feet
SP43/1016/DL/NL4117 4.0 P DEEP LINK CHAIN NO LOGO980.000Feet
SP43/1524/PBS 4116 6.0 P SOLID PIN PLAIN CHAIN954.000Feet
SP75/0762/PBS 4116 3.0 P SOLID PIN PLAIN CHAIN220.000Feet
SP75/1016/DLBS 4116 4 INCH PITCH SOLID PIN DEEP LINK CHAIN280.000Feet
SP75/1524/PBS 4116 6.0 P SOLID PIN PLAIN CHAIN294.000Feet
SP400/1524/A2X16.0 P SOLID PIN CHAIN WITH A2 ATTACHMENT EVERY PITCH98.000Feet
JKB111/K2X3JKB111 4.75" PITCH STEEL BUSH CHAIN C/W K2 EVERY 3RD ON O/L285.000Feet
JKB275/HD/A1X6/117STEEL BUSH CHAIN HEAVY DUTY A1 ATTACHMENT EVERY 6TH 117 LINK15.000Assembly
JKB275/HD/A1X6/96STEEL BUSH CHAIN HEAVY DUTY A1 ATTACHMENT EVERY 6TH 96 LINK11.000Assembly
JKB37291/SS/RF10X4CARRIER CHAIN680.000Feet
JKB37291/SS/RF10X5INTERCARRIER CHAIN485.000Feet
JKR1223/M14X1/GLCANE CARRIER CHAIN920.000Feet
JKB800/A1X4PAVER CHAIN WITH A1 ATTACHMENT EVERY 4TH100.000Feet
JKR1706/M14STEEL ROLLER CONVEYOR CHAIN JKR1706 12 " PITCH WITH M14 (1")84.000Feet
JKR2198/A/R2.75/C/K2X1CANE CARRIER CHAIN1234.500Feet
JKR2358/M14/CZX4/RHBAGASSE CONVEYOR CHAIN586.750Feet
JKR2358/M14X1/GZX4/LHBAGASSE CONVEYOR CHAIN586.750Feet
JKR2436/C/T3x457ROLLER CONVEYOR CHAIN450.000Feet
JKR2436/T2X3002436 STRAIGHT SIDEBAR ROLER CHAIN WITH T FLIGHT100.000Feet
JKR3945/K23X34 INCH PITCH S3945 CHAIN WITH K23 ATTACHMENTS EVERY 3RD PITC64.000Feet
JKR81X2.609'' ROLLER CONVEYOR CHAIN3680.000Feet
SS102B/H/K2X44.0 P STEEL BUSH CHAIN HEAVY VERSION WITH K2 ATT EVERY 4TH49.350Feet
SS102B/K2X14.0 P STEEL BUSH CHAIN K2 ATTACHMENT EVERY PITCH444.000Feet
SS102B/K2X24.0 P STEEL BUSH CHAIN WITH K2 ATTACHMENT EVERY 2ND471.670Feet
SS102B/K2X34.0 P STEEL BUSH CHAIN WITH K2 ATTACHMENT EVERY 3RD1293.833Feet
SS102B/K2X3/M4.0 P STEEL BUSH CHAIN WITH K2 ATTACHMENT EVERY 3RD0.000Feet
SS102B/K2X44.0 P STEEL BUSH CHAIN WITH K2 ATTACHMENT EVERY 4TH717.333Feet
SS102B/K2X54.0 P STEEL BUSH CHAIN WITH K2 ATTACHMENT EVERY 5TH286.667Feet
SS102B/PSS102B 4" PITCH STEEL BUSH PLAIN CHAIN68.330Feet
M112/A/100DIN 8167 STEEL BUSH CHAIN590.000Metre
M112/A/125M112 BUSH CHAIN 125 PITCH441.900Metre
M112/A/125/HD/T2X285M112 125MM STEEL BUSH CHAIN HEAVY DUTY 285 T FLIGHT105.000Metre
M112/A/125/T2X270/D4979125MM PITCH M112 STEEL BUSH CHAIN 270MM FLIGHTS AS D/497949.750Metre
M112/A/125/T2X285M112 125MM PIITCH STEEL ROLLER CHAIN 285 T FLIGHT EVERY 2ND24.000Metre
M112/A/125/T2X385STEEL BUSH CHAIN 385 T FLIGHT EVERY 2ND104.000Metre
M112/A/160DIN 8167 STEEL BUSH CHAIN36.000Metre
M112/A/80DIN 8167 STEEL BUSH CHAIN130.560Metre
M112/B/100DIN 8167 ROLLER CONVEYOR CHAIN100.000Metre
M112/B/100/WPM112 CHAIN 100MM PITCH WITH B ROLLER AND WELDED PINS504.800Metre
M112/B/100/WP/L2X2/A2X2/LHLEFT HAND CHAIN ASSEMBLY M112/B/100/WP WITH L2 AND A2996.000Metre
M112/B/125DIN 8167 STEEL ROLLER CHAIN 125MM PITCH WITH B STYLE ROLLER105.000Metre
M160/A/100DIN 8167 STEEL BUSH CHAIN158.400Metre
M160/A/125DIN 8167 STEEL BUSH CHAIN175.000Metre
M160/A/160DIN 8167 STEEL BUSH CHAIN398.170Metre
M224/A/125/HD/T2X385HEAVY DUTY STEEL BUSH CHAIN WITH 385 T FLIGHT EVERY 2ND73.000Metre
M224/A/125/T2X385DIN 8167 STEEL BUSH CHAIN 385 T FLIGHT EVERY 2ND236.000Metre
M224/A/125/T2X485DIN 8167 STEEL BUSH CHAIN 485 T FLIGHT EVERY 2ND72.000Metre
M224/A/160DIN 8167 STEEL BUSH CHAIN10.000Metre
M224/A/200/R2X4M224 200MM PITCH BUSH CHAIN WITH R2 ATTACHMENT EVERY 4TH19.200Metre
M315/A/160/B/T2X385DIN 8167 STEEL BUSH CHAIN WITH 385 T FLIGHT EVERY 2ND115.000Metre
M315/C/160/A2X1M315/C/160 WITH A2 ATTACHMENTS EVERY PITCH28.800Metre
M450/A/200DIN 8167 BUSH CHAIN102.400Metre
M450/A/200/T2X385DIN 8167 BUSH CHAIN WITH 385 T FLIGHT EVERY 2ND164.800Metre
M56/A/63/T2X218DIN 8167 BUSH CHAIN WITH 218 T FLIGHT EVERY 2ND80.320Metre
M80/A/100M80 100MM PITCH STEEL BUSH CHAIN AS DIN 816750.000Metre
M80/A/100/A2X2M80 100MM PITCH DIN 8167 BUSH CHAIN WITH A2 ATTACHMENT40.000Metre
M80/A/125DIN 8167 BUSH PLAIN CHAIN24.000Metre
M80/B/80/K2X180mm PITCH M80 CHAIN WITH INTEGRAL K2 EVERY PITCH116.000Metre
MC112/A/100100MM PITCH WITH 14.3MM HOLLOW PIN CHAIN25.000Metre
FV112/A/100DIN 8165 STEEL BUSH CHAIN75.000Metre
FV140/A/100FV140 BUSH CHAIN 100mm PITCH100.000Metre
FV140/A/125DIN 8165 STEEL BUSH CHAIN355.000Metre
FV140/A/160FV140 BUSH CHAIN 160mm PITCH417.761Metre
FV180/A/160/BT2X475FV180 BUSH CHAIN 160mm PITCH INTEGRAL T-FLIGHT 457mm WIDE10.240Metre
FV90/A/100DIN 8165 STEEL BUSH CHAIN200.000Metre
FV90/A/80DIN 8165 STEEL BUSH CHAIN50.000Metre
WDH110/RWDH110 6.0 PITCH 51000lb WELDED STEEL DRAG CHAIN300.000Feet
WDH120/R6" PITCH WELDED STEEL DRAG CHAIN 15000LB UTS620.000Feet
WH106/R6" PITCH OFFSET SIDE BAR WELDED STEEL CHAIN RIVETED84.000Feet
WH106/IBR/R6 INCH PITCH WELDED STEEL CHAIN IBR SPECIFICATION832.000Feet
WH124/XHD/IBR/RWH124/XHD WELDED STEEL CHAIN 4.063" PITCH 543kN (122,000LBS)342.000Feet
WH132/IBR/R132 WELDED STEEL CHAIN (IBR)782.167Feet
WH155/N/R6.05 P WELDED STEEL CHAIN RIVETED CONSTRUCTION76.500Feet
WH157/IBR/R157 WELDED STEEL CHAIN (IBR)95.500Feet
WH78/C2.609 P WELDED STEEL CHAIN COTTERED CONSTRUCTION500.000Feet
WH78/C/3L2.609 P WELDED STEEL CHAIN COTTERED CONST AS 3 LINK LENGTHS68.000Feet
WH78/R2.609 P WELDED STEEL CHAIN RIVETED CONSTRUCTION389.895Feet
WH82/C3.075 P WELDED STEEL CHAIN COTTERED CONSTRUCTION163.400Feet
WH82/R3.075 P WELDED STEEL CHAIN RIVETED CONSTRUCTION1025.000Feet
WHX106/C6" PITCH WELDED STEEL CHAIN 250kN WHX SPECIFICATION704.000Feet
WHX132/C6.05" PITCH WELDED STEEL CHAIN 542kN WHX SPECIFICATION109.000Feet
JK698RIVETLESS CHAIN (6.031INCH PITCH)1999.905Feet
JK698/NSJK698 6.031" PITCH RIVETLESS CHAIN NON STANDARD1000.000Feet
JKS698/SS/CS SERIES DROP FORGED CHAIN250.000Feet
MS698RIVETLESS CHAIN500.000Feet
SS678/D5X20STAINLESS RIVETLESS CHAIN SS678160.830Feet
SS678/D5X3CAST RIVETLESS CHAIN93.400Feet
X3483 INCH PITCH RIVETLESS FORGED CHAIN MAT'L 40CR TH HARDENED320.000Feet
X458FORGED RIVETLESS CHAIN950.000Feet
X6786.03 INCH PITCH RIVETLESS FORGED CHAIN ASSEMBLY10.480Feet
38/14x5014 x 50 DIN 22252 Round Link chain602.000Metre
38/18X64DIN 22252 18 X 64 ROUND LINK CHAIN mtrs188.000Each
38/18X64/11LDIN 22252 18 X 64 SUPPLIED 11 LINK LENGTHS4.000Each
38/18X64/13L13 PITCH LENGTHS 18 X 64 CHAIN ROND LINK CHAIN4.000Each
38/18X64/9LDIN 22252 18 X 64 SUPPLIED IN 9L LINK LENGTHS2.000Each
38/36X108/5LROUND LINK CHAIN131.000Each
38/39X136/4L/BW104 LINK LENGTH OF 39x136 ROUND LINK CHAIN BW10 MAT SPEC16.000Each
38/8X24/G80/114LDIN 5687-8 ROUND LINK CHAIN SUPPLIED 1 X 10 X 30MM ENLARGED1750.000Each
C102BC102B COMBINATION PLAIN CHAIN70.000Feet
C102B/C/K2X4COMBINATION CHAIN62.630Metre
C111/K2x44.76" pitch steel and malleable combination chain all cotter58.700Feet
C131/I4X457/109LCOMBINATION CHAIN C131 TWIN STRAND ASSEMBLY15.000Assembly
C131/I4X482/111LCOMBINATION CHAIN C131 TWIN STRAND ASSEMBLY15.000Assembly
C132/C/S1X46" PITCH CAST COMBINATION CHAIN WITH S PUSHER ATTACHMENT540.000Feet
C55/B1.63 P COMBINATION ROOF TOP CHAIN40.000Feet
C55/C1.63 P COMBINATION CHAIN COTTERED.74 LINK LENGTH = 10.0516FT139.845Feet
C586C8 COMBINATION PLAIN CHAIN100.000Feet
C586/T8X2COMBINATION CHAIN C8 WITH 8.00 T FLIGHT EVERY 2ND210.000Feet
C586/T2X8/NRCOMBINATION CHAIN C8 WITH 8.00 T FLIGHT EVERY 2ND NOISE RED80.000Feet
C762/T12X23 INCH PITCH CAST COMBINATION CHAIN C12 WITH 12 INCH T FLIGH186.500Feet
CC6002.50 P CAST CASE CHAIN4450.000Feet
CC600/Q2.50 P CAST CASE CHAIN10.000Feet
CC600D2.5 INCH PITCH CAST CASE CHAIN WITH D LUG340.000Feet
M600/ZN/STREVERSABLE 2.50 P CAST CASE CHAIN ZINC PLATED (STORK).51.552Metre
477400 SERIES PINTLE CHAIN149.993Feet
D662D662 ASSEMBLY20.000Feet
D667XD667X STEEL PINTLE CHAIN1120.000Feet
MX603MX603 MAXI PLAIN CHAIN55.500Feet
MX603/K1X33 INCH PITCH MAXI SERIES CHAN WITH K1 ATTACHMENT EVERY 3RD96.000Feet
MX6044 INCH PITCH MX604 MAXI SERIES PLAIN CHAIN655.000Feet
JK600CLOSED TOP CHAIN260.000Feet
JK600PD2.50 P ACETAL CASE CHAIN CLOSED TOP WITH D LUG920.000Feet
PM1400/11ACETAL CASE CHAIN STANDARD 11MM SNAP IN PIN530.000Feet
PM1400/9.5ACETAL CASE CHAIN 9.5 PIN199.280Feet
PM1400/WD/2023/1300ACETAL CASE CHAIN WING STYLE70.000Feet
PM1400D/113.25 INCH PITCH ACETAL CASE CHAIN WITH D LUG 11MM PIN500.000Feet
PM1400D/9.53.25 INCH PITCH ACETAL CASE CHAIN WITH D LUG AND 9.5MM PIN40.000Feet
PM600STANDARD 2.5 INCH PITCH ACETAL CASE CHAIN WITH SNAP IN PIN1236.000Feet
PM600/FX12.5 INCH PITCH ACETAL CASE CHAIN WITH F PUSHER EVERY PITCH100.000Feet
PM600DACETAL CHAIN WITH 'D' LUG910.000Feet
06B-1/NP3/8P BS SIMPLEX NICKEL PLATED CHAIN500.000Metre
06B-23/8P BS DUPLEX CHAINBS 3/8" PITCH DUPLEX ROLLER CHAIN35.000Metre
08B-10.50 P BS SIMPLEX CHAIN180.000Metre
08B-1/A1X40.5 PITCH BS SIMPLEX ROLLER CHAIN WITH A1 ATTACHMENTS50.000Metre
08B-1/C0.50" PITCH BS SIMPLEX CHAIN13.000Metre
08B-1/HP0.5 BS SIMPLE HOLLOW PIN CHAIN170.000Metre
08B-1/SB0.5 P BS SIMPLEX SIDE BOW CHAIN45.000Metre
08B-1/SS4200.5 P BS SIMPLEX STAINLESS STEEL AISI42035.000Metre
08B-1GL0.5 P BS SIMPLEX STRIAGHT SIDE PLATE CHAIN130.000Metre
08B-20.5 P BS DUPLEX CHAIN ROLLER CHAIN UTS 32.0Kn215.000Metre
08B-2/SPX10.5 P BS DUPLEX CHAIN WITH SPIKEATTACHMENT ONE SIDE EVERY OU320.000Metre
08B-30.50 P BS TRIPLEX CHAINBS ROLLER CHAIN290.000Metre
10B-15/8P BS SIMPLE ROLLER CHAIN45.000Metre
10B-1/A1X20.625P BS SIMPLEX CHAIN WITH A1 ATTACHMENTS EVERY OUTER LINK50.000Metre
10B-1/C5/8" PITCH BS SIMPLE ROLLER CHAIN5.000Metre
10B-1/K1X20.625 P BS SIMPLEX CHAIN WIH K1 ATTACHMENTS EVERY OUTER LINK50.000Metre
10B-1/K1X40.625 P BS SIMPLEX CHAIN WITH K1 ATTACHMENT EVERY 4TH100.000Metre
10B-1/NP5/8P BS SIMPLE NICKEL PLATED CHAIN265.000Metre
10B-25/8P BS DUPLEX CHAIN65.000Metre
12/B-1/K1X43/4" PITCH BS SIMPLEX ROLLER CHAIN WITH K1 ATTACHMENT100.000Metre
12B-13/4P BS SIMPLE CHAIN175.000Metre
12B-1/C3/4" PITCH BS SIMPLE CHAIN20.000Metre
12B-1/GL3/4 PITCH SIMPLE STRAIGHT SIDE PLATE CHAIN1390.000Metre
12B-1HP3/4INCHPITCH HOLLOW PIN JOHN KING BRAND75.000Metre
12B-1HP/NP3/4INCHPITCH HOLLOW PIN JOHN KING BRAND NICKEL PLATED1000.000Metre
12B-2/DR3/4P BS DUPLEX DACROMET CHAIN300.000Metre
12B-2/EXT3/4P BS DUPLEX CHAIN WITH EXTENDED PIN EVERY PITCH15.000Metre
12B-2/U23/4P BS DUPLEX CHAIN WITH STEEL SADDLES160.000Metre
12B-33/4P BS TRIPLEX CHAIN280.000Metre
16A-G11P ASA SIMPLEX RUBBER TOP CHAIN40.000Metre
16B-1/G11" PITCH SIMPLEX (WHITE) RUBBER TOP CHAIN10.000Metre
16B-1/HP1.0" PITCH SIMPLEX HOLLOW PIN CHAIN20.000Metre
16B-2/5P/2416B-2 5 PEP SHARP TOP CHAIN 24MM PLATE EVERY OUTER LINK AS25.000Metre
16B-2/K1X2/C16B-2 CHAIN WITH K1 BOTH SIDES EVERY OUTER20.000Metre
16B-31P BS TRIPLEX CHAIN80.000Metre
16B-3/C1"PITCH BS TRIPLEX CHAIN10.000Metre
208B1P BS EXTENDED PITCH CHAIN10.000Metre
20B-11.25P BS SIMPLEX CHAIN195.000Metre
20B-1/5P1.25 P SIMPLEX SHARP TOP CHAIN 5 PEP10.000Metre
20B-1/C1.25"PITCH BS SIMPLEX CHAIN5.000Metre
20B-1GL1.25 P BS SIMPLEX STRAIGHT SIDE PLATE CHAIN150.000Feet
20B-21.25 P BS DUPLEX CHAIN90.000Metre
210B210B BS EXTENDED PITCH CHAIN180.000Metre
24B-11.5 P BS SIMPLEX CHAIN163.700Metre
24B-2/5P1.5 P BS DUPLEX SHARP TOP CHAIN 5 PEP40.000Metre
32B-12.0 P BS SIMPLEX CHAIN5.000Metre
32B-1/2P2.0 P BS SIMPLEX SHARP TOP 2 PEP25.000Metre
32B-22.0 P BS DUPLEX CHAIN100.000Metre
38.4R38.4MM PITCH CHAIN270.000Metre
40HP0.5 P ASA SIMPLEX HOLLOW PIN CHAIN1465.000Metre
40HP/SS0.5 P ASA SIMPLEX HOLLOW PIN CHAIN STAINLESS STEEL105.000Metre
415B0.5 P X 0.1875 SIMPLEX CHAIN105.000Metre
56B-156B 3.5" PITCH SIMPLEX BRITISH STANDARD TRANSMISSION CHAIN85.000Metre
60HP3/4P ASA SIMPLEX HOLLOW PIN CHAININCH120.000Metre
A100-11.25 P ASA SIMPLEX CHAIN125.000Metre
A100-1/NP1.25 PITCH AMERICAN SIMPLEX NICKEL PLATED70.000Metre
A100H-11.25 P ASA SIMPLEX HEAVY DUTY CHAIN60.000Metre
A120-11.5 P ASA SIMPLEX CHAIN80.000Metre
A120-1/4P/FT1.5 P ASA SIMPLEX SHARP TOP TRANSMISSION CHAIN WITH 4 X FLAT50.000Metre
A120-1/C1.5 P ASA SIMPLEX CHAIN10.000Metre
A120-1/NP1.50 PITCH AMERICAN SIMPLEX NICKEL PLATED40.000Metre
A120-21.50 P ASA DUPLEX CHAIN18.000Metre
A120-2/C1.50 P ASA DUPLEX CHAIN15.000Metre
A140-11.75 P SIMPLEX CHAIN145.000Metre
A140-31.75INCH PITCH AMERCIAN STANDARD TRIPLEX CHAIN34.940Metre
A160-12.0 P ASA SIMPLEX CHAIN130.000Metre
A160-22.0 P ASA DUPLEX CHAIN25.000Metre
A200-1TRANSMISSION CHAIN20.000Metre
A200-22.5 PITCH ASA DUPLEX CHAIN15.000Feet
A35-10.375 P ASA SIMPLEX CHAIN60.000Metre
A35-23/8P ASA DUPLEX CHAIN65.000Metre
A40-10.5 P ASA SIMPLEX CHAIN50.000Metre
A40-1/9.5X10.5 P ASA SIMPLEX CHAIN 9.5mm LONG EXT PIN EVERY PITCH150.000Metre
A40-1/DEPX10.5 P ASA SIMPLEX CHAIN DUPLEX EXTENDED PIN EVERY PITCH345.000Metre
A40-1SB0.5 P ASA SIMPLEX SIDE BOW CHAIN30.000Metre
A40-20.5 P ASA DUPLEX CHAIN65.000Metre
A40-30.5 P ASA TRIPLEX CHAIN90.000Metre
A50-10.625 P ASA SIMPLEX CHAIN30.000Metre
A50-30.625 P ASA TRIPLEX CHAIN55.000Metre
A60-10.75 P ASA SIMPLEX CHAIN55.000Metre
A60-1SB0.75 P ASA SIMPLEX SIDE BOW CHAIN60.000Metre
A60-20.75 P ASA DUPLEX CHAIN140.000Metre
A60-30.75 P ASA TRIPLEX CHAIN30.000Metre
A80-1/C1.0" P ASA SIMPLEX CHAIN10.000Metre
A80-1/SS1.0 P ASA SIMPLEX CHAIN STAINLESS STEEL15.000Metre
A80-21.0 P ASA DUPLEX CHAIN35.000Metre
A80-2/C1.0 P ASA DUPLEX CHAIN20.000Metre
C16BF2/5PEPCLOSED TOP 16B-1 5 PEP10.000Metre
C20401.0 P EXTENDED PITCH CHAIN1255.000Metre
C2040/NP1.0 P EXTENDED PITCH NICKEL PLATED CHAIN425.000Metre
C204225.40MM PITCH LARGE ROLER 15.88 DIA SIMPLEX EXTENDED PITCH16.000Metre
C20501.25 P EXTENDED PITCH CHAIN440.000Metre
C2060H/GK11.1/2P ASA DOUBLE PITCH CHAIN WITH MID PITCH HOLE360.000Metre
C2080H2.0 P ASA EXTENDED PITCH CHAIN140.000Metre
C50HP/SS0.625 P ASA SIMPLEX STAINLESS STEEL HOLLOW PIN25.000Feet
D5741D5741 SPECIAL SIMPLEX 1.25'' PITCH TIN PLATE CHAIN172.720Metre
S42/A1X7S42 WITH A1 ATTACHMENT EVERY 7TH19.000Assembly
S45S45 PLAIN CHAIN279.000Feet
S45/F1X4/ZPS45 CHAIN WITH F1 ATTACHMENT EVERY 4TH ZINC PLATED20.000Feet
S55S55 PLAIN CHAIN40.000Metre
S55/1S55 ZINC PLATED AGRI CHAIN **ANGLIA AUTOFLOW**480.000Feet
S55/F1X4/ZNS55 WITH F1 BOTH SIDES EVERY 4TH PITCH (SUPERIOR)235.000Metre
S55/R1.625 AGRICULTURAL CHAIN (HEAVY DUTY)110.000Metre
S55/S1X4/ZN1.625" PITCH SD TYPE AGRICULTURAL CHAIN245.000Metre
S62/ZNS62 PLAIN CHAIN ZINC PLATED 41.91MM PITCH / 1.65 INCH30.000Metre
16B-1/C1" PITCH BS SIMPLEX CHAIN130.000Metre
24B-1/C1.5" PITCH BS SIMPLEX CHAIN100.000Metre
32B-1/C2.0" PITCH BS SIMPLEX CHAIN123.454Metre
40B-1/C2.5"PITCH SIMPLEX CHAIN38.175Metre
48B-1/C3" PITCH BS SIMPLEX CHAIN ALL COTTERED20.000Metre
A120-1/C1.5 P ASA SIMPLEX CHAIN8.000Metre
A120-2/C1.50 P ASA DUPLEX CHAIN15.000Metre
A140-1/C1.75" SIMPLEX CHAIN3.050Metre
A200-1TRANSMISSION CHAIN49.450Metre
A200-1/C2.5 PITCH ASA SIMPLEX CHAIN52.520Metre
A80-2/C1.0 P ASA DUPLEX CHAIN20.000Metre
C10B-1/KK1X8/DR10B-1 STRAIGHT SIDEBAR WITH KK ATTACHMENT EVERY 8TH1000.000Metre
JKD1605AA5 INCH PITCH HEAVY DUTY DRIVE CHAIN14.000Link
JKD3011OFFSET SIDEBAR DRIVE CHAIN859.000Link
JKD307578.10MM PITCH OFFSET SIDEBAR DRIVE CHAIN2583.000Link
JKD35003.5 INCH PITCH OFFSET SIDEBAR DRIVE CHAIN1117.000Link
JKD4063103.20MM PITCH OFFSET SIDEBAR DRIVE CHAIN281.000Link
JKD4073103.45MM PITCH OFFSET SIDEBAR DRIVE CHAIN27.000Link
JKD45004.5 INCH PITCH OFFSET SIDEBAR DRIVE CHAIN602.000Link
JKD50315 INCH PITCH OFFSET SIDEBAR DRIVE CHAIN235.000Link
JKD5082 INCH PITCH OFFSET SIDEBAR DRIVE CHAIN501.000Link
JKD60426 INCH PITCH OFFSET SIDEBAR DRIVE CHAIN217.000Link
JKD8822.609 INCH PITCH OFFSET SIDEBAR DRIVE CHAIN1702.000Link
A3500A3500 ASSEMBLY460.000Feet
BL6168/17L5" PITCH BLOCK AND BAR CHAIN UPRATED VERSION9.000Assembly
BL6168/19L5" PITCH BLOCK AND BAR CHAIN UPRATED VERSION9.000Assembly
BL6168/21L5" PITCH BLOCK AND BAR CHAIN UPRATED VERSION10.000Assembly
BL6168/23L5" PITCH BLOCK AND BAR CHAIN UPRATED VERSION76.000Assembly
C2062H/SK2X7+8LANHAM LUG CHAIN X 72P 9 PAIRS OF LUGS @ 12'' (8P)28.000Each
CC6352.50 P FABRICATED CASE CHAIN494.810Metre
CC635/52.50 P FABRICATED CASE CHAIN (5MM LINK PLATE)582.000Metre
D162/5LCOMBINATION CHAIN AS D/162 5 LINK LENGTH (FEEDER BREAKER)23.000Assembly
D3271/HD4" pitch heavy duty monorail transport chain to drawing84.679Metre
D338880MM PITCH SPECIAL STEEL BUSH AS DRAWING D/338812.800Metre
D5065160MM PITCH DEEP LINK HOMBAK CHAIN DRG D/506525.600Metre
D5561FEEDER BREAKER CHAIN AS D5561245.000Feet
D6827/3L100mm pitch steel bush chain old version as drawing D6827.33.000Metre
D6827/4L100MM PITCH OLD VERSION SPECIAL BUSH CHAIN20.000Metre
D6827/5L100MM PITCH OLD VERSION SPECIAL BUSH CHAIN35.000Metre
D6827/7L100mm pitch steel bush chain for Underpress Chain original20.000Metre
D762D762 ASSEMBLY711.000Feet
JK261/SS50MM PITCH HOLLOW PIN CHAIN WITH 30MM DIAMETER ROLLER 10MM30.000Metre
JKB100/A/1016/L2X44" PITCH BUSH CHAIN WITH L2 ATTACHMENT EVERY 4TH33.300Metre
JKB175/A/150/BT2X300JKB175 STEEL BUSH CHAIN WITH BT2X300 BOLTED CLEANER FLIGHT400.000Metre
JKB37291JKB37291 PLAIN CHAIN62.000Metre
JKR3428/A/KOX2250MM PITCH TRANSFER CHAIN UTS 270KN INTEGROL BENT PLATFORM116.000Metre
JKRC7478/MSIEMPELKAMP PRESS CHAIN BELT 2496.000Metre
WHM160/160/RWELDED STEEL CHAIN353.600Metre
WHM224/160/RMETRIC WELDED SERIES CHAIN220.800Metre
WHM224/200/RMETRIC WELDED SERIES CHAIN208.000Metre
WHM224/C/200/A114X4WHM224/C/200 CRANK LINK WELDED BUSH CHAIN, 85MM ROLLER146.000Metre
WHM315/160/RWHM WELDED STEEL CHAIN580.800Metre

[styled_image image=”https://www.johnkingchains.com/wp-content/uploads/news001-problemcement-foto04.jpg” w=”230″ h=”0″ link=”” lightbox=”no” alt=”Worn out chain pins from the old design” rel=”” align=”right” caption=”Worn out chain pins from the old design”]

The same ten pins were also checked for hardness on the unworn portion of the body and the worn portion to obtain hardness values. This particular testing was carried out using a Rockwell C hardness tester. Table 2 shows the hardness testing values of pins on drive and none drive side on worn and unworn areas of the pin. It clearly demonstrates that the primary wear condition was taking place on the pin body where the link articulates. The articulation will only take place when the chain moves around the sprockets on the head and tail shaft.

[table “2” not found /]

It was evident that the surface hardening, which was at a very high value, was completely undermined in the worn area where the values were very low and reflected the nature of the poor pin material.

It was noted that there was an increased degree of wear on the drive side of the two strands. The unequal extension was undoubtedly a negative influence on the operation of the chain and would be the subject of further consideration.

It was already understood that the link was made from nickel chrome case-hardened steel. It was concluded that the alloy content had provided a necessary degree of corrosion resistance. The pin however was made from a mild steel EN3A, a finding that was the result of an independant investigation by the cement plant operator. EN3A is a basic mild steel and although its is carbonised to create a high hardness case, it has no alloy content and therefore has a low core hardness.

It was concluded the failures of the experience in the slat arrangement was the result of the accelerated wear of the pins and uneven pin wear between the two strands taking into account that the slats were bolted solidly to the attachments without any elasticity. The data shown in Table 1 established that there was 139.32mm of unequal extension between drive side and non-driveside. When the chain met the drive sprockets this mismatch created a sheer condition, which caused the slats to twist.

The results of the analysis highlighted two areas for consideration; 1) Examination of the pin material and heat-treatment methods to establish if any better alternatives can be selected. 2) The introduction of some elasticity in the slat fixing arrangement to compensate for any mismatch between the two strands of chain. 3) An improvement in the material of the slat to reduce weight and corrosion.

Engineering a solution

It was clear that the pin material was inadequate from the perspectives of both corrosion and abrasion resistance, although corrosion seemed to be the main issue.

John King had past experience of many similar applications and was able to confirm that it was essential that to have built-in clearance between the slat and the attachment on double strand drags such as the system at the UK cement plant. Options 1 and 3 demonstrate designs that ensure that mismatch can be accommodated without mechanical damage.

Option 1 had a spacer bush, the length being in excess of the combined thickness of attachment and the slat so when it is bolted it does not clamp solid.

[styled_image image=”https://www.johnkingchains.com/wp-content/uploads/news001-problemcement-foto05.jpg” w=”605″ h=”0″ link=”” lightbox=”no” alt=”Sample of chain parts from option 1 as shown to the cement plant operator” rel=”” align=”left” caption=”Sample of chain parts from option 1 as shown to the cement plant operator”]

[styled_image image=”https://www.johnkingchains.com/wp-content/uploads/news001-problemcement-foto06.jpg” w=”605″ h=”0″ link=”” lightbox=”yes” alt=”CAD drawing of option 1, which was selected by the cement plant operator” rel=”” align=”left” caption=”CAD drawing of option 1, which was selected by the cement plant operator”]

Option 3 incorporated a cast clevis, which is welded to the link with a swivel bolt to fix the slat. Plastic flights produced from polyethylene material were considered to reduce weight and offer corrosion resistance.

Options 2 and 4 were the same as options 1 and 3, but with plastic slats instead of metal slats.

Meeting with the cement plant operator

A meeting was arranged with engineers from the cement plant operator in order to discuss the proposals.

All four options were presented and discussed. It was recognised that the plant operator has first-hand and long experience in operation of chain systems, therefore it was understood that their opinion would be valued.

The plant operator discounted options 2 and 4, because it considered plastic slats to be too vulnerable to foreign objects entering the conveyor and causing impact damage. It was concluded by those present that option 1 with the cast clevis was more robust and offered better self-aligning characteristics. The meeting was concluded with a request for a commercial offer for a replacement chain based on option 1. A sample of chain parts was requested and subsequently an order was placed.

Conclusion

The project was completed by John King in January 2010 and the new system has since proven itself in terms of specification and construction.

Oliver Wadsworth, John King (USA) Inc.

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