18.6 Cast Link Chains – John King Irons and Steels

It is in the manufacture of cast link chains that John King has its origins. The Company therefore have unrivalled experience if the production of castings in irons and steels for employment in conveyor chains. A significant benefit can be gained in a one piece construction obviating the need for press fits or welds. In addition there is almost limitless flexibility in the materials employed to achieve exactly the properties the customer is seeking whether this is in corrosion resistance, heat resistance, abrasion resistance or a combination of the three.

IRONS – For conventional links in iron, spheroidal graphite has replaced the white heart malleable originally employed and from this ductile material a greater range of mechanical properties can be accessed.

Table 18.6.1 Standard Grades of Ductile Iron

European Material Designation

American Material Designation

Tensile Strength

Proof Stress

Elongation

N/mm²

N/mm²

%

ISO 1083/JS/350-22/S

-

350 (-)

220 (-)

22 (-)

ISO 1083/JS/400-18/S

(ANSI/ASTM 60-40-18)

400 (414)

250 (276)

18 (18)

ISO 1083/JS/400-15/S

(ANSI/ASTM 65-45-12)

400 (448)

250 (310)

15 (12)

ISO 1083/JS/450-10/S

(ANSI/ASTM 60-42-10)

450 (415)

310 (290)

10 (10)

ISO 1083/JS/500-7/S

(ANSI/ASTM 80-55-06)

500 (552)

320 (379)

7 (6)

ISO 1083/JS/550-5/S

(ANSI/ASTM 70-50-05)

550 (485)

350 (345)

5 (5)

ISO 1083/JS/600-3/S

(ANSI/ASTM 100-70-03)

600 (689)

370 (483)

3 (3)

ISO 1083/JS/700-2/S

-

700 (-)

420 (-)

2 (-)

ISO 1083/JS/800-2/S

(ANSI/ASTM 120-90-02)

800 (827)

480 (621)

2 (2)

ISO 1083/JS/900-2/S

-

900 (-)

600 (-)

2 (-)


Significant advantage has been gained in the employment of Austempered Ductile iron a fully pearlitic material that through an austempering heat treatment process offers mechanical properties similar to alloy steels with a reduced weight typical of iron. This enhancement through a cyanide quench operation also introduces a work hardening characteristic. Through experience the company have settled on two grades most appropriate to the product and are identified under King HT1 and HT2.

Table 18.6.2 Austempered Ductile Iron

ADI Material Designation

JK Designation

Tensile Strength

Proof Stress

Elongation

Hardness Brinell

N/mm²

N/mm²

%

BHN (B.I.D. Mm)

750-500-11 GRADE 1/2

-

786

151

14

270 (3.70)

900-650-9 GRADE 1

-

966

759

11

302 (3.50)

1050-750-7 GRADE 2

HT1

1139

897

10

340 (3.30)

1200-850-4 GRADE 3

HT2

1311

1104

7

387 (3.10)

1400-1100-2 GRADE 4

-

1518

1242

5

418 (3.00)

1600-1300-1 GRADE 5

-

1656

1449

3

460 (2.85)


CAST STEELS – There is a wealth of material options within the family of cast steels which allow the Engineer to select an appropriate material for the application. For chain links John King have established a range of materials which from experience will allow for best option in most applications whether this be 420 high chrome steel for heat and abrasion in such as a moving grate or High manganese steel which work hardens the more punishment it is given and through this unique quality has become predominant within cement clinker transport.

Table 18.6.3 John King Cast Steels

British Standard Material Designation

American Material Designation

JOHN KING Designation

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (figs are % maxima except where noted or where range is shown)

Tensile Strength

Proof Stress

CHARPY (impact

value at 20°C unless otherwise shown)

Brinell Hardness

Elongation

C

Si

Mn

S

P

Ni

Cr

Mo

Cu

%

N/mm² (T/in²)

Joules

%

CARBON STEEL

A1

A216:WCA

JK/A1

0,25

0,60

0,90

0,06

0,06

0,40

0,25

0,15

0,30

430 (28)

230 (15)

25

-

22

 

A2

A216:WCB

JK/A2

0,35

0,60

1,00

0,06

0,06

-

-

-

-

490 (32)

260 (17)

20

-

18

 

A3

A148:80-40

JK/A3

0,45

0,60

1,00

0,06

0,06

-

-

-

-

540 (35)

295 (19)

18

-

14

Carbon Steel for case hardening

AW1

SAE J435C :0022

JK/CH

0.10-0.18

0,60

0.60-1.00

0,05

0,05

0,40

0,25

0,15

0,30

460 (30)

-

25

-

12

Carbon steel for wear resistance and surface hardening

AW2

SAE J435C: 0050A

JK/WR1

0.40-0.50

0,60

1,00

0,05

0,05

0,40

0,25

0,15

0,30

620 (40)

325 (21)

-

-

12

AW3

 

JK/WR2

0.50-0.60

0,60

1,00

0,05

0,05

0,40

0,25

0,15

0,30

690 (45)

370 (24)

-

-

8

LOW ALLOY STEELS

Carbon

molybdenum steel for elevated temps.

B1

A217:WC1

JK/B1

0,20

0.20-0.60

0.50-1.00

0,05

0,05

0,04

0,25

0.45-0.65

0,30

460 (30)

260 (17)

20

-

18

Chronuim

molybdenum steel for elevated temps

B2

A217:WC6

JK/B2

0,20

0,60

0.50-0.80

0,05

0,05

0,04

1.00-1.50

0.45-0.65

0,30

480 (31)

280 (18)

30

140-212

17

 

B3

A217:WC9

JK/B3

0,18

0,60

0.40-0.70

0,05

0,05

0,04

2.00-2.75

0.90-1.20

0,30

540 (35)

325 (21)

25

156-235

17

 

B4

 

JK/B4

0,25

0,75

0.30-0.70

0,04

0,04

0,04

2.50-3.50

0.35-0.60

0,30

620 (40)

370 (24)

25

179-255

13

 

B5

A217:C5

JK/B5

0,20

0,75

0.40-0.70

0,04

0,04

0,04

4.0-6.0

0.45-0.65

0,30

620 (40)

420 (27)

25

179-255

13

 

B6

A217:C12

JK/B6

0,20

1,00

0.30-0.70

0,04

0,04

0,04

8.0-10.0

0.90-1.20

0,30

620 (40)

420 (27)

-

179-255

13

Alloy steel with high tensile strength

BT1

A148:105-85

JK/BT1

-

-

-

0,05

0,05

-

-

-

-

690-850 (45-55)

495 (32)

35

201-255

11

 

BT2

A148:120-95

JK/BT2

-

-

-

0,04

0,04

-

-

-

-

850-1000 (55-65)

585 (38)

25

248-302

8

 

BT3

A148:150-125

JK/BT3

-

-

-

0,03

0,03

-

-

-

-

1000-1160 (65-75)

695 (45)

20

293-341

6

Alloy steel for case hardening

BW1

 

JK/BW1

0.12-0.18

0,60

0.30-0.60

0,04

0,04

3.0-3.75

0.60-1.10

0.15-0.25

0,30

1000 (65)

-

20

-

7

1% chronium steel for resistance to abrasion

BW2

 

JK/BW2

0.45-0.55

0,75

0.50-1.00

0,06

0,06

-

0.80-1.20

-

-

-

-

-

201-255

-

 

BW3

 

JK/BW3

0.45-0.55

0,75

0.50-1.00

0,06

0,06

-

0.80-1.20

-

-

-

-

-

293 min

-

 

BW4

 

JK/BW4

0.55-0.65

0,75

0.50-1.00

0,06

0,06

-

0.80-1.50

0.20-0.40

-

-

-

-

341 min

1

HIGH ALLOY STEELS

13% chromuim steel

410C21

A743:CA-15

JK/HA1

0,15

1,00

1,00

0,04

0,04

1,00

11.5-13.5

-

-

540 (35)

370 (24)

-

152-207

15

 

420C29

A743:CA-15

JK/HA2

0,20

1,00

1,00

0,04

0,04

1,00

11.5-13.5

-

-

690 (45)

465 (30)

-

201-255

11

13% chromium 4% nickel steel

425C11

A743:CA-6NM

JK/HA3

0,10

1,00

1,00

0,04

0,04

3.4-4.2

11.5-13.5

0,60

-

770 (50)

620 (40)

30

235-321

12

Chromuim steel for high temps

452C11

A297:HC

JK/H1

1,00

2,00

1,00

0,06

0,06

4,00

25.0-30.0

1,50

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

452C12

 

JK/H2

1.00-2.00

2,00

1,00

0,06

0,06

4,00

25.0-30.0

1,50

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

420C24

 

JK/H3

0,25

2,00

1,00

0,06

0,06

-

12.0-16.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Alloy steel for high temps

309C35

A297:HH

JK/HH

0.20-0.50

1,50

2,00

0,04

0,04

11.0-14.0

24.0-28.0

1,50

-

510 (33)

-

-

-

-

 

310C40

A351:HK40

JK/HK

0.30-0.50

1,50

2,00

0,04

0,04

19.0-22.0

24.0-27.0

1,50

-

450 (29)

-

-

-

-

WEAR RESISTANT STEELS

11-14% austenitic manganese steel + derivatives

BW10

A128:GrA

JK/MN

1.00-1.25

1,00

11.00 min

0,06

0,07

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-